A friend who is working primarily in the J2EE technology world (as I was, until early 2006) asked me for a how’s-it-going with respect to Ruby and Rails.
The short version:
– Ruby is fun to program in, as you’ve probably heard
– Rails is over-hyped, but it’s still quite good (definitely not perfect)
– I like the productivity of Ruby on Rails but I wouldn’t call it a silver bullet by any means
– Ruby performance was bad and is getting less bad, and can even be good if you do what the experts say
– The real gem (har har) in the Ruby and Rails space is the community itself
Now for the longer version:
It’s hard for me to be objective since I only started programming in Ruby in February and started using Rails in April, but the language and framework don’t strike me as tedious or kludgy at all. I’m definitely enjoying Ruby and making use of its fancier language features, all of which seem to actually work as advertised without any hideous gotchas when you actually try to do something slick.
I particularly enjoy the way Ruby’s collections allow you to write in the style of a functional language; have a look at the Array, Enumerable, and Hash classes to see what I mean. It’s possible to write extremely compact code that morphs a collection into something very different, but without the inscrutability of Perl.
Compared to my experience with mainstream Java and J2EE, I certainly don’t miss Tomcat, Ant, Struts, or JSP Expression Language. (Instead I’m using Mongrel, Rake, Rails, and ERB.) That’s not Java’s fault, and could be alleviated by just picking better tools and frameworks at the start of a project. I don’t miss Hibernate but I don’t have any gripes about it either.
There are features in Java 1.5 that are helpful in alleviating some of the annoyances of programming in Java, but because these are new features, the vast majority of library code in the wild doesn’t use them (similar to the problems with OO being bolted onto Perl and PHP). Also there are political and business deployment roadblocks to using the latest technology: just because you can download an official release of something and it works perfectly for your code, that doesn’t mean that you necessarily have permission to deploy that technology stack onto production servers. Big organizations take years to officially support new releases, so you may be stuck developing against 3 year old products and APIs.
I’m not trying to troll for Java vs Ruby comment flames here. My point is just that Ruby has had features for a relatively long time that Java is just recently adopting (or simulating), and that’s important for more than just petty bragging rights; a feature that’s unavailable to you for your own org’s political or financial reasons might as well not be there at all. (Or maybe it’s worse, if it makes you bitter about your own work environment: “I have to write all this ugly stupid code because Bob is afraid to upgrade the server… grr.”)
I used to be horrified at the idea of messing with somebody else’s classes (as is done by Hash.slice from will_paginate, which I swiped all by itself since I don’t really need will_paginate), but I’m finding that the apocalypse I feared just isn’t there. If you do something wacky, like add a new method to String, the world doesn’t collapse. Or maybe it does, and you decide not to do it that particular way; just do something else. ActiveSupport adds all kinds of stuff to base classes like String, and it’s OK. Example: ActiveSupport::CoreExtensions::String::Inflections.
I’m still adjusting to using a dynamic language: not uber-checking arguments and state all the way down a method call stack (oh no! is it nil?), not locking down everything so it can only work the way I planned, etc. In most cases, the Ruby equivalent of a NullPointerException is fine. I think this is because the built-in error message includes the type and method you were trying to call, so you can usually just read that and see what you did wrong. The only time you’d want to prevent that is if you bury that error deep in your own code, so that the caller would have no idea of what they did that led to it. I’m finding that I’m OK with writing less paranoid code, because the failure will still happen, and be suitably clear in its cause, without my explicitly checking for it.
An issue with Ruby and Rails is that the official documentation is limited. It’s imperative to have 2 or 3 books on hand at all times, in addition to the RDoc Rails documentation. I own three of the Pragmatic Programmer books: Programming Ruby (the “pickaxe book”), Agile Web Development with Rails, 2nd Edition, and Rails Recipes. Just looking at generated API documentation won’t tell you how you’re supposed to use libraries.
The reverse way of looking at that need for documentation is symbol lookup. Rails does some pre-including of library and framework files before loading the application file you’re working on, so unlike Java, you don’t have a mandatory list of imports at the top that tell you where every class you’re working with came from. There are some symbols and functions you can call from instances of particular classes, and they came from somewhere but it’s not obvious where, at least when you’re starting. A good IDE with “find declaration” could fix this, but initially it’s daunting: “what are *all* the options for this method?” “Where is this method defined, even?” etc. This is where the books are less useful and API documentation can help.
I’ve also subscribed to a couple dozen RSS feeds that help me keep up with what the really slick Ruby and Rails people are using, writing, struggling with, etc. Chief among them is probably Err the Blog. The Ruby on Rails podcast is helpful also.
As for productivity, here are 4 specific time-savers I’ve found:
1) TextMate, which is very slick. There are Windows equivalents, though from what I’ve heard, they’re not 100% as good. Point is, a text editor that understands Ruby is critical, and if it helps you jump around in a big tree of files, that’s very helpful.
I’m an Emacs devotee, and TextMate is far better for Ruby and Rails. It’s hard to explain, but let’s just say that TextMate is much deeper and more featureful than it appears at first glance.
I looked at NetBeans which is pretty close to being a very smart Ruby & Rails IDE, but it was still suffering an identity crisis (am I a Java IDE? or a multi-language thing?) that cluttered the UI badly. This is a hot area of innovation right now so any week now TextMate might be eclipsed (or Eclipsed, har har) by something more full-featured. There are a few other options but I didn’t see anything that led me to believe a multi-hour or multi-day eval would be worth it.
2) Locomotive. It’s like MAMP or WAMP or any of those all-in-one application stack installers, except it gives you a working Rails environment. I set up PostgreSQL separately thru MacPorts (a cousin of the FreeBSD ports project), which was somewhat tedious but decently documented.
Getting all the Ruby and Rails stuff compiled from source is no picnic, and frankly unnecessary. On Ubuntu there’s a gotcha: the Ubuntu people and the RubyGems people can’t agree on a file layout, so Ubuntu’s rubygems package sucks. It’s better to install Ruby using apt-get and then install gems manually from the tarball.
3) Rails Plugins. There’s a lot of stuff being built on top of Rails and then improved day by day, and svn-over-WebDAV is the popular sync protocol. There’s a tool called Piston that helps you manage this. Anyway there’s a lot of stuff that is hard to do and commonly needed which is available in plugin form.
4) ZenTest, and more specifically, Autotest. It watches your source tree and runs only the tests in your test suite that need to be run based on what has changed; it’s the dynamic-language version of the incremental compilation that’s present in any good Java IDE.